Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Comparison
|Characteristics||Scholarly (Peer-Reviewed) or (Refereed) & Research Journals||Professional and Trade Industry||Popular Magazines||Newspapers|
|Examples||Journal of American History ; Journal of Educational Research||Library Journal ; Science Teacher||People , Time , Sports Illustrated||New York Times ; Boston Globe|
|Purpose/Content/Use||Read by other researchers and professionals. Used for research, scholarship, and analysis covering in-depth topics||news, events, current trends, products, forecasts and employment||entertainment, special interests, persuasion, opinion, current events, quick facts||current events, news, local information, opinions, entertainment|
|Author||subject specialist and experts (Researchers professors, scholars)||practitioner, professional, subject knowledgeable specialist||staff writer, reporter, journalist||journalist, reporter, and editor, may include expert|
|Audience||Professionals, researchers, scholars, students in a specific discipline||practitioners, professionals, general public||general public||general public|
|Credibility/Reliability||Reviewed/refereed by experts. The format and content meets strict guidelines. Generally includes a bibliography and may also include the author's credentials||Reviewed by editors, professional/trade associations||Editor and staff reviewed||Editor and staff reviewed|
|Appearance||serious; plain paper, may include abstracts, charts, graphs, tables, and a bibliography.||trade advertisements||colorful, glossy, advertisements||advertisements|
|Language||Includes discipline specific language||May include professional jargon||general audience, non-technical, simple language||basic terms, non-technical|
|Length||articles with in-depth coverage||short news items and in-depth articles||short articles||brief articles|
|Frequency||monthly or quarterly||weekly or monthly||weekly or monthly||daily or weekly|
|Publisher||An academic publisher; professional or scholarly association or society||An organization, association, or corporation||Corporation, commercial enterprises, individuals||Corporation, commercial enterprises, individuals|
CRAAP - Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose.
One way of testing an articles reliability
Currency: the timeliness of the information
- When was the information published?
- Are the links functional?
Relevance: the importance of the information for your needs
- Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
- Who is the intended audience?
Authority: the source of the information
- Who is the author/publisher/sponsor and what are their credentials?
- Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?
Accuracy: the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content
- Where does the information come from and is it supported by evidence?
- Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
- Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: the reason the information exists
- What is the purpose of the information?
- Is the information fact? opinion?