Evidence Based Practice Diagram
Best evidence from research, clinical expertise and experience, and client/patient perspective.
Evidence-based is the practical application of the findings of the best available current research. The research should demonstrate a positive outcome for application. This assignment generally requires you to use scholarly/peer-reviewed resources that are ten or less years old. Primary sources in physical education and exercise science often contain methods, (empirical studies, randomized control trials, clinical trials), results, and discussions.
Levels of Evidence
Hierarchy of Evidence
or three+ RCTs of good quality with similar results.
Ackley, B. J., Swan, B. A., Ladwig, G., & Tucker, S. (2008). Evidence-based Nursing Care Guidelines: Medical-surgical Interventions. (p. 7). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Evidence Based Practice
Types of Resources
Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries and systems: the “5S" evolution of services for evidence-based health care decisions. ACP J Club. 2006 Nov-Dec;145(3):A8-9.
Meta-Analysis: systematic review - uses quantitative methods to synthesize & summarize results.
Systematic Review: A summary of the literature with explicit methods to perform a comprehensive literature search & critical appraisal of individual studies.
Randomized Controlled Trial: randomly allocated participants with experimental or control groups & followed over time
Cohort Study: patients with a condition followed over time & compared with another group without the condition.
Case Control Study: Patients with a specific outcome & participants without that outcome (controls).
Case Report/Case Series: 1 or more with a particular outcome
P = Patient /Problem/Population - Patients age 65 and older with high blood pressure
age, gender, ethnicity, disorder
I = Intervention - Patient education
- exposure, risk behavior, prognostic factor
C = Comparison or Control - No patient education
O = Outcome - Patient participation in exercise
T= Time (Sometimes) (^months or three years)
NIH. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/oet/ed/pubmed/pubmed_in_ebp/02-100.html