Evidence Based Practice Diagram

Best evidence from research, clinical expertise and experience, and client/patient perspective. 


Evidence-based is the practical application of the findings of the best available current research.  The research  should demonstrate a positive outcome for application. This assignment generally requires you to use scholarly/peer-reviewed resources that are ten or less years old.  Primary sources in physical education and exercise science often contain methods, (empirical studies, randomized control trials, clinical trials), results, and discussions. 

Levels of Evidence

EBP graphic illustration. Best Research Evidence, Clinical Expertise and Patience Values & Preferences

Hierarchy of Evidence

Level I - Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or three+ RCTs of good quality with similar results.

Level II - Evidence from at least one well-designed RCTs

Level III - Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization (i.e. quasi-experimental).

Level IV - Evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies

Level V - Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies

Level VI - Evidence from single descriptive or qualitative studies

Level VII - Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees

Ackley, B. J., Swan, B. A., Ladwig, G., & Tucker, S. (2008). Evidence-based Nursing Care Guidelines: Medical-surgical Interventions. (p. 7)St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Evidence Based Practice

Measurement Tools

Types of Resources

Hierarchy of Evidence Resources - Pyramid - at base studies, then syntheses, then synopses, then summaries, and at the top systems

Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries and systems: the “5S" evolution of services for evidence-based health care decisions. ACP J Club. 2006 Nov-Dec;145(3):A8-9. 

Meta-Analysis: systematic review - uses quantitative methods to synthesize & summarize results.

Systematic Review: A summary of the literature with explicit methods to perform a comprehensive literature search & critical appraisal of individual studies.

Randomized Controlled Trial:  randomly allocated participants with experimental or control groups & followed over time

Cohort Study:  patients with a condition followed over time & compared with another group without the condition.

Case Control Study: Patients with a specific outcome & participants without that outcome (controls).

Case Report/Case Series: 1 or more with a particular outcome


P = Patient /Problem/Population - Patients age 65 and older with high blood pressure 

  •  age, gender, ethnicity, disorder

I = Intervention - Patient education

  • exposure, risk behavior, prognostic factor

C = Comparison or Control - No patient education

O = Outcome - Patient participation in exercise

T= Time (Sometimes) (^months or three years)

NIH. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/oet/ed/pubmed/pubmed_in_ebp/02-100.html


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