Evidence Based Practice Diagram
Best evidence from research, clinical expertise and experience, and client/patient perspective.
Evidence-based is the practical application of the findings of the best available current research. The research should demonstrate a positive outcome for application. This assignment generally requires you to use scholarly/peer-reviewed resources that are ten or less years old. Primary sources in physical education and exercise science often contain methods, (empirical studies, randomized control trials, clinical trials), results, and discussions.
Levels of Evidence
Hierarchy of Evidence
Level I - Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or three+ RCTs of good quality with similar results.
Level II - Evidence from at least one well-designed RCTs
Level III - Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization (i.e. quasi-experimental).
Level IV - Evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies
Level V - Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies
Level VI - Evidence from single descriptive or qualitative studies
Level VII - Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees
Ackley, B. J., Swan, B. A., Ladwig, G., & Tucker, S. (2008). Evidence-based Nursing Care Guidelines: Medical-surgical Interventions. (p. 7). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Evidence Based Practice
NCBI. Integrating Pain Management in Clinical PracticeJamison RN, Edwards RR. Integrating pain management in clinical practice. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2012;19(1):49-64. doi:10.1007/s10880-012-9295-2
Northwest University/NIH. PROMIS.Obtain & Administer Measures
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. VHA Pain ManagementPain Measurements, drawing, numeric rating scale, Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) Complete Assessment, - West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory. and more
Types of Resources
Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries and systems: the “5S" evolution of services for evidence-based health care decisions. ACP J Club. 2006 Nov-Dec;145(3):A8-9.
Meta-Analysis: systematic review - uses quantitative methods to synthesize & summarize results.
Systematic Review: A summary of the literature with explicit methods to perform a comprehensive literature search & critical appraisal of individual studies.
Randomized Controlled Trial: randomly allocated participants with experimental or control groups & followed over time
Cohort Study: patients with a condition followed over time & compared with another group without the condition.
Case Control Study: Patients with a specific outcome & participants without that outcome (controls).
Case Report/Case Series: 1 or more with a particular outcome
P = Patient /Problem/Population - Patients age 65 and older with high blood pressure
age, gender, ethnicity, disorder
I = Intervention - Patient education
- exposure, risk behavior, prognostic factor
C = Comparison or Control - No patient education
O = Outcome - Patient participation in exercise
T= Time (Sometimes) (^months or three years)
NIH. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/oet/ed/pubmed/pubmed_in_ebp/02-100.html
EBSCOHost. 7 Steps to the Perfect PICO Search Evidence-Based Nursing PracticePICO search strategies. We do not have CINHAL but use the strategies for othr databases.
- Cochrane LibraryOnly free access portion
Chat with a Librarian
- Connecticut State Department of Public Health.Where to Find Evidence-Based Methods and Interventions
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pain Management Best Practices: Final Reportpage 143 Acupuncture, message therapies, yoga, etc.