Evidence Based Practice Diagram


Evidence-based is the practical application of the findings of the best available current research.  The research  should demonstrate a positive outcome for application. This assignment generally requires you to use scholarly/peer-reviewed resources that are ten or less years old.  Primary sources in physical education and exercise science often contain methods, (empirical studies, randomized control trials, clinical trials), results, and discussions. 

Levels of Evidence

EBP graphic illustration

Hierarchy of Evidence

Level I - Evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or three+ RCTs of good quality with similar results.

Level II - Evidence from at least one well-designed RCTs

Level III - Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization (i.e. quasi-experimental).

Level IV - Evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies

Level V - Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies

Level VI - Evidence from single descriptive or qualitative studies

Level VII - Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees

Ackley, B. J., Swan, B. A., Ladwig, G., & Tucker, S. (2008). Evidence-based Nursing Care Guidelines: Medical-surgical Interventions. (p. 7)St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Evidence Based Practice

Measurement Tools

Types of Resources

Hierarchy of Evidence Resources - Nursing - Research Guides at University  of Michigan Library

Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries and systems: the “5S" evolution of services for evidence-based health care decisions. ACP J Club. 2006 Nov-Dec;145(3):A8-9. 


P = Patient or Problem - Patients age 65 and older with high blood pressure

I = Intervention - Patient education

C = Comparison - No patient education

O = Outcome - Patient participation in exercise

NIH. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/oet/ed/pubmed/pubmed_in_ebp/02-100.html



Problem, Patient, Action, Alternative, Patient Results, Evidence


Patient Reported Outcome Measures

Qualitative versus Quantitative

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